Learn how stock and options trading works along with the important basic definitions. Explore the professional content and get ready to start trading! Learn everything about technical analysis, options, bonds, and fundamental analysis!

Bond issuer


Price of bonds

Face value of bonds

Frequency of interest payments

Country risk

Foreign exchange risk

Foreign exchange risk (also called FX or currency risk) applies to foreign investments. When there are foreign bonds in the investment portfolio, the return is not only dependent on the fluctuations of market prices on the foreign markets, but also on the fluctuations of the exchange rates between the domestic and the foreign currencies.

The weakening (depreciation against the foreign currency) of the domestic currency is beneficial for the return of the foreign investment, because the currency exchange generates extra returns. When the domestic currency appreciates, the return of the investment decreases, because the performance of the investment worsens in terms of the domestic currency.

When investing in foreign governmental and corporate bonds, one must count with the enhanced FX risk exposure. Investing in American bonds or shares makes investors own securities with US dollar values. Investing in Indian shares makes investors own shares with Indian rupee values.

Some firms in the public and private sectors may decide to issue bonds or other securities in foreign currency. It can happen for plenty of reasons. The most important three are the following: decreasing FX risk, increasing funds only available abroad, and increasing trust in the given bond (and in the currency and solvency as well). There are 13 important foreign bonds:

  • Eurodollar bond: a US dollar-denominated bond (issuer: non-US entity outside the US market)
  • Kangaroo bond: an Australian dollar-denominated bond
  • Maple bond: a Canadian dollar-denominated bond
  • Samurai bond: a Japanese yen-denominated bond (issuer: non-Japanese entity on the Japanese market)
  • Shibosai Bond: a private placement bond in Japanese market with distribution limited to institutions and banks
  • Yankee bond: a US dollar-denominated bond (issuer: non-US entity on the US market)
  • Shogun bond: non-yen-denominated bond (issuer: non-Japanese institution or government on the Japanese market)
  • Bulldog bond: a British pound-denominated bond
  • Matrioshka bond: a Russian rouble-denominated bond
  • Arirang bond: a Korean won-denominated bond
  • Kimchi bond: a non-Korean won-denominated bond
  • Formosa bond: a non-New Taiwan Dollar-denominated bond
  • Panda bond: a Chinese renminbi-denominated bond

Sector (industry) related risk

Bond credit rating


Bond interest rate

E-Learning System

  • Courses from real Experts
  • Quizzes, Lessons, Achievements
  • Immediate techniques

Activate the E-Learning System! Only 2 minutes!

The Huntraders E-Learning system is based on several Experts experience to provide practical information for our members. All topics have been thematically structured to offer the information and knowledge necessary for all traders. The course gives an inevitable knowledge for successful trading to start making profit.

Use the Complete E-Learning System with your Huntraders Membership!

Trading Guides


25 indicators. Find the indicators matching Your strategy and learn their trading signals through examples!

Candlestick patterns

88 candlestick patterns. Increase Your profit by recognising candlestick patterns and analysing the market with their help.

Chart patterns

31 chart patterns. Recognise triangles and breakouts, calculate the target prices defined by them.

Option strategies

49 option strategies. Apply the strategies that best suit your purposes and learn how to calculate their potential profit and risk through examples.